SCGF

Stem Cell Growth Factor
SCGF
Research
Laboratory










SCGF but not SCF  
supports proliferation  
of ES cells.



SCGF is a novel innate
immune protector
against infection.

NF-κB regulates  
scgf positively or
negatively?

SCGF interactome:
Sav1, Cep85, Traf2/7,
XIAP

SCGFR

What function does
exosomal SCGF carry
out?
Is SCGF a
transcriptokine
bifunctioning as
cytokine and
intracellular regulator?

SCGF, a therapeutic
target for cancer and
leukemia cells

What type of sugar
does SCGF bind?
gSCGF pretends to be a useless lamp in the daytime, but
changes to be a powerful rescue light at blackouth

New Unravelment !
We launch a new era in SCGF research.
Several noteworthy findings have recently been reported.

SCGF promotes viability and proliferation of mouse female
germline stem cells (FGSCs).
rmSCGF, or daidzein through  scgf up-regulation, activates
Akt signaling pathway to promote viability and proliferation
of mouse FGSCs  in vitro
(680).
(See alsogBiologic Functionh and  gGene Expressionhsection in
details)

SCGF has a survival activity on human B cells.
Monocyte-secreted SCGF promotes human B cell survival
alone and synergistically with BAFF
(678).
(See alsogBiologic Functionh section in details)

SCGF promotes tumor growth.
SCGF secreted by cancer cells exerts integrin-mediated
chemotactic activity on ambient vascular endothelial cells
and promotes tumor growth with enhanced angiogenesis

(671). SCGF suppression could open the way to a novel anti-cancer therapy.
(See also
gBiologic Functionh and gDiseaseh section in details)

SCGF restores stress-induced hematopoietic defect.
MAPK and NFκB-activated CDH5-MAPK mice exhibit
hematopoietic defect with perivascular niche inflammation.
Mouse SCGF restores hematopoietic and vascular defects
when administered to CDH5-MAPK mice or irradiated wild
type mice
(616,Pat34).
(See alsogBiologic Functionhand  gDiseasehsection in details)

Serum SCGF level determines onset of SARS-CoV-2
infection.
Machine learning indicates with 100% accuracy that SARS-
CoV-2-infected patients with higher and lower serum SCGF
level are asymptomatic and symptomatic respectively

(632). SCGF is a prognostic biomarker for symptom onset
and, more importantly, SCGF could control novel protective
immune mechanisms against infection. As for 2018-2019
outbreak of Andes orthohantavirus pulmonary syndrome in
Argentina, reduced serum SCGF level is associated with
hantavirus spreaders compared to non-spreaders, and
among spreaders, notably with superspreaders compared to
non-superspreaders  
(636). Like SARS-CoV-2 infection
SCGF could be a critical player of innate immunity against
hantavirus infection.

(See alsogDiseaseh  and  gPerspectivesh  section in details)

SCGF has a proliferative activity on pancreatic islet cells.
Lipotoxic stress, e.g. high fat diet-induced obesity and in
vitro treatment with palmitic acid, down-regulates scgf
gene expression in mouse pancreatic islet cells to suppress
their proliferation  (609). rh/rmSCGF mitigates the
lipotoxicity on islet cells, and further stimulates islet
stellate and  β cell proliferation.
(See also"Biologic Function"section in details)

Mouse  scgf induces fetal osteogenesis.
Androgenetic haploid mouse ES cells with  scgf-targeted
mutagenesis are injected into mature oocytes to yield
scgf-/-or chimeric  scgf+/-mice  (604). The  scgf-mutated
newborn mice exhibit bone abnormalities, e.g. size reduction,
impaired calcification and hypoplastic skull. Mouse  scgf
exerts osteogenic activity during fetal development.
(See also"Biologic Function"section in details)

SCGF has been thought to bind integrins (ITGs) through
RGD motif sequence. Of human ITGα4β1,  α9β1,  
α10β1,  α11β1,  αVβ1,  αVβ3,  αIIbβ3 and  αMβ2
tested, human SCGF selectively binds ITGα10β1 and
ITGα11β1 with similar high affinity as human pro-collagen
1αthrough RGD  
(594). Mouse SCGF acts on human and
mouse MSCs to induce osteogenic differentiation despite
lacking RGD through activated Wnt signal transduction, i.e.
phosphorylation of GSK3, accumulation of nuclear  β-
catenin and up-regulation of Wnt target genes of Alp, Axin2,
Lef1 and Runx2. ITGα10β1 and ITGα11β1 are not RGD-
recognizing integrins and mouse SCGF lacks RGD, indicating
that SCGF binds integrins through other mechanisms than
RGD.

Scgf is a mandatory driver for MSC proliferation. Scgf gene
expression is highly down-regulated in the RelA
-/-  (a
component of NFκB) hES cell-derived MSCs, and they
exhibit defective self-renewal ability  
(592). Knockdown of
wild type hMSCs with scgf shRNA abrogates their
proliferative potential.

Weighed gene co-expression network analysis discloses scgf
as a hub gene in multiple myeloma cells. Scgf gene
expression is highly up-regulated in t(4;14)-positive
myeloma cells with MMSET overexpression. Knockdown of
t(4;14)-positive KMS-26 and NCI-H929 myeloma cells with
scgf siRNA down-regulates expression of NFκB and IRF4, a
target for MMSET, and decreases cell viability by 60%
associated with increased annexin V-positive apoptotic
cells. The findings indicate that scgf can be a potential
therapeutic target for t(4;14)-positive myeloma  
(536).


SCGF (Stem Cell Growth Factor) is a cytokine of the
C-type lectin family to foster and grow various kinds of stem cells,
e.g. embryonic stem (ES) cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs),
hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), neural stem cells (NSCs),
mammary stem cells, prostatic stem cells, etc.

SCGF is produced and secreted by stem cells themselves
through an autocrine mechanism or ambient stem cell niche cells
through a paracrine mechanism, e.g. osteoblasts and chondroblasts
in the bone marrow.

A confusable terminology of "stem cell growth factor" is
classified as follows;
In a narrow or specific sense: (Note! Distinguish  scgf  from  KL)
Official gene name
Alias
Symbol
Full name
scgf
stem cell growth factor clec11a
KL       c-kit  (CD117) ligand SCF (stem cell factor)
SLF (Steel factor)
Mast/stem cell growth factor
In a broad sense:
Growth factors for stem cells, including BMP, FGF, LIF and SCGF

This page aims at depicting everything about SCGF based on the
findings obtained so far, and is weekly updated along with undergoing
studies.

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